EN 1621-1, 2, and 3: Motorcyclists’ protective clothing against mechanical impact:
Mandatory in Europe but recognized globally, this safety standard evaluates back, chest, knee, elbow, shoulder, and hip impact protectors. Products are evaluated by placing them on an anvil that measures force transmitted from a striker and through the product. Results are categorized by Level 1 and Level 2 based on a maximum force transmitted. Level 2 products absorb more force (transmit less) than Level 1 products. In most product designs, Level 2 protectors will be thicker and heavier than Level 1 protectors. In lieu of a unique standard, EN 1621 is also recognized in the cycling market.
EN 14021: Stone shield for off-road motorcycling:
Often used to certify “roost guards”, this standard evaluates products’ abilities to withstand impacts with projectiles such as stones and debris. The hard shell of the product is checked for gaps, then impacted with a small striker to check rigidity. Products tested to EN 14021 are not intended to protect the rider when impacting the ground, bike, or other objects in a crash.
EN 13634: Protective footwear for motorcycle riders:
Mandatory in Europe but recognized globally, this safety standard evaluates motorcycle footwear such as boots and shoes. The standard tests products for tear strength, abrasion resistance, and dimensions of the outsole. The resistance to an impacted knife cut is evaluated and the results determine if the product achieves Level 1 or Level 2 protection. Due to this and a rigidity test for the entire product, Level 2 footwear is usually thicker and stiffer than Level 1. Optional testing requirements will be marked on the label and include impact protection to the ankle and shin, water resistance, fuel oil resistance, slip resistance, breathability, and insole water absorption.
EN 1938: Personal eye protection- Goggles for motorcycle users:
Mandatory in Europe but recognized globally, this safety standard evaluates motorcycle goggles for impact resistance and resistance to damage from fine particles. Field of view, UV transmittance, infrared transmittance, luminous transmittance, and an optional resistance to fogging are also tested.
EN 13594: Protective gloves for motorcycle riders:
Mandatory in Europe but recognized globally, this safety standard evaluates motorcycle gloves. The standard tests for seam strength, cut resistance, impact abrasion resistance, and impact protection of knuckles. Each test has results that qualify the glove as either Level 1 or Level 2. Impact protection of the knuckles is optional for Level 1 gloves but mandatory for Level 2.
ECE 22.05: Protective helmets and their visors for drivers and passengers of motorcycles
Mandatory for motorcycle helmets in Europe and other parts of the world, this standard evaluates helmets with and without face shields (visors). Helmets are evaluated for impact resistance, rigidity, and retention via chin strap. The impact test is conducted by dropping the helmet at 7.5 m/s onto flat and kerbstone (rounded triangular prism) shaped anvils. Sensors in the dummy head record the acceleration of the impact and must remain under 275 g’s. The standard also considers the duration of impact and calculates a HIC (head injury criteria) score which must remain below 2400. Helmet shields are tested for field of vision, light transmission, light refraction, mechanical properties, and scratch resistance.
ECE 22.06: Protective helmets and their visors for drivers and passengers of motorcycles
Introduced in 2020 and mandatory in 2024 for helmets sold in Europe and other countries adopting the standard, ECE 22.06 builds on ECE 22.05 by introducing additional impact locations, high energy (8.0 m/s) and low energy (6.0 m/s) impacts, rotational acceleration test, and requiring all accessories to be tested on the helmet. Modular helmets must now be tested in their chin bar up and chin bar down positions. As this is the most modern helmet standard, most FLY helmets have been engineered to exceed the requirements regardless of local regulations.
DOT FMVSS No. 218: Motorcycle helmets:
Motorcycle helmet standard required for helmets sold in the United States and other countries adopting the standard. In this test a dummy head fitted with the helmet is dropped onto flat and hemispherical anvils at 6.2 m/s and 5.4 m/s accordingly. The resultant g force must remain below 400. Duration of impact is also considered in passing a helmet. DOT also tests for penetration resistance by dropping a cone shaped striker onto the helmet. The helmet must prevent the striker from reaching the dummy head.
EN 1078: Bicycle helmets:
This European standard evaluates all types of cycling helmets. Impact testing is performed by dropping the helmet with a dummy head inside. The helmet is dropped from a height to achieve 5.42 m/s velocity on impact with a flat anvil and 4.57 m/s on a kerbstone (rounded triangular prism) anvil. The resultant acceleration of the dummy head must be below 250 g forces. Helmet straps are also tested to ensure the helmet will not fall off during a crash.
CPSC 16 CFR PART 1203: Bicycle helmets:
This US standard evaluates all types of cycling helmets. Impact testing is performed by dropping the helmet with a dummy head inside. The helmet is dropped from a height to achieve 6.2 m/s velocity on impact with a flat anvil and 4.8 m/s on a kerbstone (rounded triangular prism) and hemispherical anvil. The resultant acceleration of the dummy head must be below 300 g forces. Helmet straps are also tested to ensure the helmet will not fall off during a crash.
ASTM 1952: Downhill mountain bike helmets:
This standard is generally used to evaluate full face cycling helmets with chin bars. Certain destinations and events may require a helmet to be certified to this standard for use at the facility or event. Compared to EN 1078 and CPSC tests, the area tested is larger and impact speeds are higher. The helmet is dropped from a height to achieve 6.2 m/s velocity on impact with a flat anvil and 5.6 m/s on a kerbstone (rounded triangular prism) and hemispherical anvil. The acceleration of the dummy head must be less than 300 g forces. In addition, the chin bar of the helmet is tested for rigidity by dropping a 5kg flat striker onto the chin bar at 2.8 m/s. The chin bar cannot deflect more than 60mm.
ASTM 2032: BMX helmets:
This standard uses an identical procedure to the above ASTM 1952 test, however the area tested is slightly larger.